Objective: To compare different antibiotic prophylaxis administered after preterm premature rupture of membranes to determine whether any were associated with differences in obstetric and/or neonatal outcomes and/or neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of corrected age.
Design: Prospective, nationwide, population-based EPIPAGE-2 cohort study of preterm infants.
Setting: France, 2011.
Sample: We included 492 women with a singleton pregnancy and a diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24-31 weeks. Exclusion criteria were contraindication to expectant management or indication for antibiotic therapy other than preterm premature rupture of membranes. Antibiotic prophylaxis was categorised as amoxicillin (n = 345), macrolide (n = 30), third-generation cephalosporin (n = 45) or any combinations covering Streptococcus agalactiae and >90% of Escherichia coli (n = 72), initiated within 24 hours after preterm premature rupture of membranes.
Methods: Population-averaged robust Poisson models.
Main outcome measures: Survival at discharge without severe neonatal morbidity, 2-year neurodevelopment.
Results: With amoxicillin, macrolide, third-generation cephalosporin and combinations, 78.5%, 83.9%, 93.6% and 86.0% of neonates were discharged alive without severe morbidity. The administration of third-generation cephalosporin or any E. coli-targeting combinations was associated with improved survival without severe morbidity (adjusted risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval 1.08-1.45] and 1.10 [95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.20], respectively) compared with amoxicillin. We evidenced no increase in neonatal sepsis related to third-generation cephalosporin-resistant pathogen.
Conclusion: In preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24-31 weeks, antibiotic prophylaxis based on third-generation cephalosporin may be associated with improved survival without severe neonatal morbidity when compared with amoxicillin, with no evidence of increase in neonatal sepsis related to third-generation cephalosporin-resistant pathogen.