We investigated whether nonsurgical termination of pregnancy after 14 weeks of gestation increases the risk of preterm delivery in a subsequent pregnancy. We conducted a two-centre retrospective case-control study. Patients who underwent non-surgical termination of pregnancy after 14 weeks of gestation between 2012 and 2015 and who gave birth after 14 weeks of gestation to a live-born singleton infant were included. Control patients were those who gave birth after 37 weeks of gestation (the same month as a case patient) and had a second delivery of a singleton foetus after 14 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was preterm delivery during the second pregnancy period. We included 151 cases and 302 controls and observed 13 (8.6%) preterm births during the second pregnancy in the case group versus 8 (2.6%) (odds ratio: 3.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.40-8.65, p < .001) in the control group. This result remained significant after multivariate analysis. Impact statementWhat is already known about this topic? Many studies have evaluated the association between first-trimester surgical or non-surgical termination of pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy. However, no study has evaluated the association between second- or third-trimester non-surgical termination of pregnancy due to foetal disease and the risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy. A small number of studies have included a small proportion of patients who previously underwent non-surgical termination of pregnancy after 14 weeks of gestation and later experienced first-trimester termination during their second pregnancy. These studies focussed on the impact of the interpregnancy interval or pharmacological induction of labour on the risk of preterm delivery in the subsequent pregnancy.What did the results of this study add? This is the first study to specifically evaluate the association between second- and third-trimester non-surgical terminations of pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy. When compared with term birth, nonsurgical termination of pregnancy was associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth and hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit in the subsequent pregnancy.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and further research? Further studies are required to confirm our results, but information delivered to patients with a late termination of pregnancy and during their pregnancy follow-up for the subsequent pregnancy could be modified to provide this information.