We conducted an international multicenter retrospective cohort study, PregOuTCOV, to examine the effect of gestational age at time of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. We included all singleton pregnancies with a live fetus at 10 weeks’ gestation in which pregnancy outcomes were known. The exposed group consisted of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, whereas the unexposed group consisted of all remaining patients during the same period. Primary outcomes were defined as composite adverse obstetric outcomes and composite adverse neonatal outcomes. Of 10,925 pregnant women, 393 (3.60%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (exposed group). After matching for possible confounders, we identified statistically significant increases in the exposed group of composite adverse obstetric outcomes at >20 weeks’ gestation and of composite adverse neonatal outcomes at >26 weeks’ gestation (p<0.001). Vaccination programs should target women early in pregnancy or before conception, if possible.