Background: Although prophylactic tranexamic acid administration after cesarean delivery resulted in a lower incidence of calculated estimated blood loss of >1000 mL or red cell transfusion by day 2, its failure to reduce the incidence of hemorrhage-related secondary clinical outcomes (TRAnexamic Acid for Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage Following a Cesarean Delivery trial) makes its use questionable. The magnitude of its effect may differ in women at higher risk of blood loss, including those with multiple pregnancies.
Objective: This study aimed to compare the effect of tranexamic acid vs placebo to prevent blood loss after cesarean delivery among women with multiple pregnancies.
Study design: This was a secondary analysis of the TRAnexamic Acid for Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage Following a Cesarean Delivery trial data, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial from March 2018 to January 2020 in 27 French maternity hospitals, that included 319 women with multiple pregnancies. Women with a cesarean delivery before or during labor at ≥34 weeks of gestation were randomized to receive intravenously 1 g of tranexamic acid (n=160) or placebo (n=159), both with prophylactic uterotonics. The primary outcome was a calculated estimated blood loss of >1000 mL or a red blood cell transfusion by 2 days after delivery. The secondary outcomes included clinical and laboratory blood loss measurements.
Results: Of the 4551 women randomized in this trial, 319 had a multiple pregnancy and cesarean delivery, and 298 (93.4%) had primary outcome data available. This outcome occurred in 62 of 147 women (42.2%) in the tranexamic acid group and 67 of 152 (44.1%) receiving placebo (adjusted risk ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.38; P=.86). No significant between-group differences occurred for any hemorrhage-related clinical outcomes: gravimetrically estimated blood loss, provider-assessed clinically significant hemorrhage, additional uterotonics, postpartum blood transfusion, arterial embolization, and emergency surgery (P>.05 for all comparisons).
Conclusion: Among women with a multiple pregnancy and cesarean delivery, prophylactic tranexamic acid did not reduce the incidence of any blood loss-related outcomes.