Risk factors for bronchiolitis hospitalization in infants: A French nationwide retrospective cohort study over four consecutive seasons (2009-2013).

PLoS One. 2020 Mar 6;15(3):e0229766. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229766. eCollection 2020.


Large studies are needed to update risk factors of bronchiolitis hospitalization. We performed a nationwide analysis of hospitalization rates for bronchiolitis over four consecutive bronchiolitis seasons to identify underlying medical disorders at risk of bronchiolitis hospitalization and assess their frequency.


Data were retrieved from the French National Hospital Discharge database. Of all infants discharged alive from maternity wards from January 2008 to December 2013 in France (N = 3,884,791), we identified four consecutive cohorts at risk of bronchiolitis during the seasons of 2009-2010 to 2012-2013. The main outcome was bronchiolitis hospitalization during a season. Individual risk factors were collected.


Among infants, 6.0% were preterm and 2.0% had ≥1 chronic condition including 0.2% bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and 0.2% hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (HS-CHD). Bronchiolitis hospitalization rates varied between seasons (min: 1.26% in 2010-2011; max: 1.48% in 2012-2013; p<0.001). Except omphalocele, the following conditions were associated with an increased risk for bronchiolitis hospitalization: solid organ (9.052; 95% CI, 4.664-17.567) and stem cell transplants (6.012; 95% CI, 3.441-10.503), muscular dystrophy (4.002; 95% CI, 3.1095-5.152), cardiomyopathy (3.407; 95% CI, 2.613-4.442), HS-CHD (3.404; 95% CI, 3.153-3.675), congenital lung disease and/or bronchial abnormalities, Down syndrome, congenital tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernia, pulmonary hypertension, chromosomal abnormalities other than Down syndrome, hemodynamically non-significant CHD, congenital abnormalities of nervous system, cystic fibrosis, cleft palate, cardiovascular disease occurring during perinatal period, and BPD.


Besides prematurity, BPD, and HS-CHD, eighteen underlying conditions were associated with a significant increased risk for bronchiolitis hospitalization in a nationwide population.