Toxoplasmose pendant la grossesse : proposition actuelle de prise en charge pratique [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: Practical Management]


The burden of congenital toxoplasmosis has become small in France today, in particular as a result of timely therapy for pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. Thus, the French screening and prevention program has been evaluated and recently confirmed despite a decline over time in the incidence of toxoplasmosis. Serological diagnosis of maternal seroconversion is usually simple but can be difficult when the first trimester test shows the presence of IgM, requiring referral to an expert laboratory. Woman with confirmed seroconversion should be referred quickly to an expert center, which will decide with her on treatment and antenatal diagnosis. Although the level of proof is moderate, there is a body of evidence in favor of active prophylactic prenatal treatment started as early as possible (ideally within 3 weeks of seroconversion) to reduce the risk of maternal-fetal transmission, as well as symptoms in children. The recommended therapies to prevent maternal-fetal transmission are: (1) spiramycin in case of maternal infection before 14 gestational weeks; (2) pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (P-S) with folinic acid in case of maternal infection at 14 WG or more. Amniocentesis is recommended to guide prenatal and neonatal care. If fetal infection is diagnosed by PCR on amniotic fluid, therapy with P-S should be initiated as early as possible or continued in order reduce the risk of damage to the brain or eyes. Further research is required to validate new approaches to preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.